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Geometric-invariant image watermarking by object-oriented embedding


Yu-Tzu Lin, Ja-Ling Wu, Yu-Feng Kuo


Vol. 6  No. 3  pp. 175-186


Traditional digital watermarking techniques often treat the image as a set of pixels rather than a set of objects. Under these schemes, the resistance to geometrical attacks is a difficult problem because the image pixels are sensitive to geometrical distortions. Once the watermarked image is altered by geometrical operations, pixels are disturbed and the recovery is difficult especially when the blind watermarking is a must. In this paper, we propose a simple watermarking scheme which is blind-detectable, computational-efficient, and robust against geometrical attacks and signal processing, in addition, the embedding capacity is reasonable. The proposed object-oriented watermarking scheme is based on the assumption that even the malicious attackers would not destroy the user-attentive objects (the so-called principal objects) in the images too much, so embedding watermark in these objects are more robust to geometrical alternations or signal processing than in the whole image. We extract segments contained in the principal object, and embed watermarks in one of the extracted segments. Experiments show promising results. This fact encourages us to do further researches on object-oriented watermarking which analyzes the host images from the viewpoints of human vision


Watermarking, geometric attacks, affine-resistance, image normalization, blind watermarking.