To search, Click below search items.


All Published Papers Search Service


Video Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis and Wavelet Transform


Salwa A.K. Mostafa, A. S. Tolba, F. M. Abdelkader, Hisham M. Elhindy


Vol. 9  No. 8  pp. 45-52


The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel technique to embed a binary logo watermark into video frames. The proposed scheme is an imperceptible and a robust hybrid DWT-PCA (Principal Component Analysis) video watermarking scheme. Firstly, each video frame is transformed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Next, the two bands (LL ? HH) are divided into blocks. Finally, PCA is applied to each block of the two bands. The watermark is embedded into the principal components of the LL blocks and HH blocks in different ways. Combining the two transforms improved the performance of the watermark algorithm. The scheme is tested by applying various attacks. Experimental results show that no visible different between the watermarked frames and the original frames and the proposed watermarking method is robust against a wide range of attacks such as MPEG coding, JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, contrast adjustment, sharpen filter, cropping, resizing, and rotation.


Video watermarking, Principal Component Analysis, Discrete Wavelet Transform, binary logo watermark