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The Psychometric Properties of Effectiveness Scale in Distance-Digital


Deyab A. Almaleki


Vol. 21  No. 12  pp. 149-156


This study intended to test the structure of the latent factor of an effectiveness scale and the stability of invariance across groups of students’ classifications (gender and levels of education). In the large, non-clinical sample (850), students completed the effectiveness scale. The (CFA) confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the factor-structure of the measure, and multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) model was used to test the stability of invariance across groups of students’ classifications. The findings of the CFA indicated support for the original four-factor model. Additional analyses of the MGCFA method support the measurement (configural, metric and strong) invariant and practical invariant components of this model. There was an invariant across gender. There was partially invariant across groups of levels of education. The scale exists in groups of levels of education assess the same concepts of, excluding Items 15 and 10. Given that this study is the first investigation for the structure of the effectiveness scale.


Digital Scale; Effectiveness; Factor Analysis; Factorial Invariance