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COVID-19 Diagnosis from CXR images through pre-trained Deep Visual Embeddings


Shahzaib Khalid, Muhammad Shehram Shah Syed, Erum Saba, Nasrullah Pirzada


Vol. 22  No. 5  pp. 175-181


COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome that affects the host's breathing and respiratory system. The novel disease's first case was reported in 2019 and has created a state of emergency in the whole world and declared a global pandemic within months after the first case. The disease created elements of socio-economic crisis globally. The emergency has made it imperative for professionals to take the necessary measures to make early diagnoses of the disease. The conventional diagnosis for COVID-19 is through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing. However, in a lot of rural societies, these tests are not available or take a lot of time to provide results. Hence, we propose a COVID-19 classification system by means of machine learning and transfer learning models. The proposed approach identifies individuals with COVID-19 and distinguishes them from those who are healthy with the help of Deep Visual Embeddings (DVE). Five state-of-the-art models: VGG-19, ResNet50, Inceptionv3, MobileNetv3, and EfficientNetB7, were used in this study along with five different pooling schemes to perform deep feature extraction. In addition, the features are normalized using standard scaling, and 4-fold cross-validation is used to validate the performance over multiple versions of the validation data. The best results of 88.86% UAR, 88.27% Specificity, 89.44% Sensitivity, 88.62% Accuracy, 89.06% Precision, and 87.52% F1-score were obtained using ResNet-50 with Average Pooling and Logistic regression with class weight as the classifier.


COVID-19, Deep Visual Features, Transfer Learning, Classification, Logistic Regression.