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A Survey of Application Layer Protocols of Internet of Things


Nawab bibi, Faiza Iqbal, Salwa Muhammad Akhtar, Rabia Anwar, Shamshad bibi


Vol. 21  No. 11  pp. 301-311


The technological advancements of the last two decades directed the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT enables billions of devices to connect through the internet and share their information and resources on a global level. These devices can be anything, from smartphones to embedded sensors. The main purpose of IoT is to make devices capable of achieving the desired goal with minimal to no human intervention. Although it hascome as a social and economic blessing, it still brought forward many security risks. This paper focuses on providing a survey of the most commonly used application layer protocols in the IoT domain, namely, Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP), and Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). MQTT, AMQP, and XMPP use TCP for device-to-device communication, while CoAP utilizes UDP to achieve this purpose. MQTT and AMQP are based on a publish/subscribe model, CoAP uses the request/reply model for its structuring. In addition to this, the quality of service provision of MQTT, AMQP, and CoAP is not very high, especially when the deliverance of messages is concerned. The selection of protocols for each application is very a tedious task.This survey discusses the architectures, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of each of these protocols. The main contribution of this work is to describe each of the aforementioned application protocols in detail as well as providing their thorough comparative analysis. This survey will be helpful to the developers in selecting the protocol ideal for their system and/or application.


Internet of Things (IoT), Application layer protocols, MQTT, CoAP, XMPP, AMQP.