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Pragmatic Assessment of Optimizers in Deep Learning


Ajeet K. Jain, Dr. PVRD Prasad Rao, Dr. K. Venkatesh Sharma


Vol. 23  No. 10  pp. 115-128


Deep learning has been incorporating various optimization techniques motivated by new pragmatic optimizing algorithm advancements and their usage has a central role in Machine learning. In recent past, new avatars of various optimizers are being put into practice and their suitability and applicability has been reported on various domains. The resurgence of novelty starts from Stochastic Gradient Descent to convex and non-convex and derivative-free approaches. In the contemporary of these horizons of optimizers, choosing a best-fit or appropriate optimizer is an important consideration in deep learning theme as these working?horse engines determines the final performance predicted by the model. Moreover with increasing number of deep layers tantamount higher complexity with hyper?parameter tuning and consequently need to delve for a befitting optimizer. We empirically examine most popular and widely used optimizers on various data sets and networks?like MNIST and GAN plus others. The pragmatic comparison focuses on their similarities, differences and possibilities of their suitability for a given application. Additionally, the recent optimizer variants are highlighted with their subtlety. The article emphasizes on their critical role and pinpoints buttress options while choosing among them.


Deep Learning, Optimizers, Convexity, Lottery Ticket, ADAM, RMS Prop